In philosophy, the problem of universals refers to the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what they are. Properties in this context refers to qualities, attributes or relations that two or more entities have in common. The various kinds of properties, such as qualities and relations, are referred to as universals. For instance, one can imagine gravity being a common denominator in any description of a dynamic system of a planet, or two daughters that have in common being the female offspring of Frank. There are many such properties, such as being human, red, male or female, liquid, big or small, taller than, or being a father of someone. While philosophers agree that human beings talk and think about properties, they disagree on whether these universals exist in reality or merely in thought and speech. The highest forms of these universals known to contemporary science is time and space.
Plato’s theory of forms for example is a philosophical concept that views this phenomenal world as being not as real or true as timeless, absolute, unchangeable ideas. According to this theory, universal attributes of reality studied by philosophy are the non-physical essences of all things in this world of which objects and physical matter are merely imitations. Plato speaks of these universal entities as Forms that are the only objects of study that can provide knowledge.
The Indus Valley Civilization was a civilization that believed that our phenomenal existence originated from a timeless direction. Being a civilization whose recorded history depicts frequent interaction with extra terrestrial intelligence, they recorded their knowledge using linguistic methods that are no longer present in most world languages. Unlike the classifications of knowledge adopted by contemporary science and philosophy when it comes to describing reality, the knowledge of this civilization regards the fundamental state of being in reality (described by the subject of Ontology) as being personal in nature and represents the primary form of knowledge used to describe the most fundamental aspect of “universals” in reality. Their description of time, space and beyond begins from the subject of Ontology and progresses to all other aspects of knowledge that is used to describe reality
Physical theories of the late 19th century assumed that waves on the surface of water ripples and audible sound requires the medium of transfer such as water and air respectively to travel over time. Similarly, it was the standard assumption that light travels on a medium in order to propagate itself. This medium was called Luminiferous aether or Ether. The concept of Ether existed in what we now call ancient mythologies of the East and West. The Indus Valley Civilization believed by didactic knowledge that behind such a concept as ether lied a personality whose purpose of existence was the functional aspects of Ether. The Ancient Greeks for example identified the personification of Ether as Aether the son of Erebus and Nyx whose function was to incinerate. In their metaphysics, Ether was thought to be the pure essence of God’s breath. Much later, it was Plato who adopted the classical system of four elements being earth, fire, water and air.
Above these elements is where Plato places Ether in his metaphysics. This element according to him was located in the region of what we know of as outer space thus limiting the scope of his metaphysics to have a concise description of space and time. The metaphysics of Plato defined Ether as something that moved circularly and was of properties that did not belong to our terrestrial world. If we were to fast forward history from Plato’s time past Newton and arrive at the time of James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electrodynamics, the metaphysics of ether at our current point in history had further refined itself into a specific science. That science aims to enquire upon the subject which we now know today as electromagnetism.
The Indus Valley Civilization however defined ether in a more elaborate manner. To them, the mind, our empirical intuition and our vital energy have forms that are not visible to the naked eye. This must be viewed from an epistemology that recognizes the boundary conditions of human perception. In this case specifically, it refers to our capacity of observing the electromagnetic spectrum, sound vibration and other energy forms that exist within the ethereal spectrum of the Vedas (the recorded knowledge of the Indus Valley Civilization). Such forms not noticeable to the human sensory faculties are also recognized as forms in Vedic epistemology and therefore is part of space. The function of ether is to be the foundation upon which space is formed. Ether therefore is the true foundation of phenomenal space. From the point of view of human perception not only does ether manifest the space that we usually see around us but is also responsible for manifesting our body, mind and our sensory faculties as well as our intuitions. When we speak of ether from a causal perspective of the Indus Valley Civilization, the efficient cause of ether is Brahman denoting an all pervasive state of existence that resembles what contemporary science refers to as negative entropy.