In the study of domestic and wild animals, a series of steps are highlighted to evaluate the patient, such as: anamnesis and hemogram.
As in humans, before diagnosing a pathology in animals, it is important to take into account the liquid connective tissue (blood) that extends throughout the body of the animal, to observe under the microscope all the formal elements found in it, and to express whether there are living organisms that cause any damage to the patient.
First of all, we must define what a complete blood count is.
The complete blood count is the study that expresses all the characteristics of the blood, that is to say, it shows quantitative data on erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets, thus we will know the chemical and physical state of the blood. This study is performed when taking a patient's medical history, and is of utmost importance for definitive diagnoses.
The blood is formed by plasma and formed elements that have different functions in animals and people, among the formed elements we find:
- Red blood cells or erythrocytes: They are also known as red blood cells and are characterized by being anucleated in mammals, and have nuclei in fish, reptiles and birds. They are cells in charge of oxygen transport, since they contain hemoglobin, which is characterized by its red color.
- White blood cells or leukocytes: Found in the blood, they are the line of defense in the organism of animals and humans. These cells are varied and act according to the foreign agent that wants to cause damage in the animal; among the leukocytes we have neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and platelets.
When performing blood tests, the cells previously mentioned are counted, and different techniques are used according to what is to be observed under the microscope.
Blood smears are the most used to evaluate the animal, because erythrocytes and leukocytes are observed, being able to differentiate if they are granular or agranular; in the same way the smear allows us to evaluate the erythrocytes in detail, and conclude if there is presence of babesia, trypanosoma and other blood parasites.