Episcleritis is benign recurrent inflammation of the episclera, involving the overlying Tenon's capsule but not the underlying sclera. It typically affects young adults, being twice as common in women than men.
Etiology Exact etiology is not known. It is found in association with gout, rosacea and psoriasis. It has also been considered a hypersensitivity reaction to endogenous tubercular or streptococcal toxins. Pathology Histologically, there occurs localised lymphocytic infiltration of episcleral tissue associated with oedema and congestion of overlying Tenon's capsule and conjunctiva.
Clinical picture Symptoms.
Episcleritis is characterised by redness, mild ocular discomfort described as gritty, burning or foreign body sensation. Many a time it may not be accompanied by any discomfort at all. Rarely, mild photophobia and lacrimation may occur. Signs. On examination two clinical types of episcleritis, diffuse (simple) and nodular may be recognised. Episclera is seen acutely inflamed in the involved area.