Soil is the outer thin layer of the earth's crust on which plants grows.
TYPES OF SOIL
There are three types of soil ......
(1) Sandy soil (2)Clay soil (3) Loamy Soil..
FEATURES/COMPONENTS OF SANDY SOIL
(A) Sandy Soil contains more than 50% of the sand
(B) It has large particles and diameter is between 0.02-2mm.
(C)It has large pore space .
(D) It has low water holding capacity.
(E) It is course,grainy and gritty.
(F) It is easy to Cultivate.
(G) It is poor mineral holding capacity.
FEATURES/CHARACTERISTICS OF CLAY SOIL.
(A) It has high water holding capacity.
(B) it is hard to cultivate.
(C) it contains many elements and minerals.
(D) it is rich in plant nutrients.
(E) it is usually water ligged .
(F) clay soil is impermeable.
(G) it has good mineral holding capacity.
FEATURES/PROPERNESS OF LOAMY SOIL
(A)it contains a lot of organic matter (Horms)
(B)it is well aerated and can hold water.
(C) it does not support erosion and water logging.
(D)it contains a mixture of warse grain and fined grain.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL
(1) SOIL TEXTURE: it is the ways in which the different particles of the soil are arranged .
(2) PERMEABILITY:this is the ability of water perotrate into soil.
(3) PEROSITY:this refers to pore space in the soil.
(4) GAPILLARITY:This is the upuard movement of water in the soil.
This is the verticle section through the soil to the umoler lying parent rocks.the soil profile has four (4) layers or Horizons A,B,C,D.
(1) A-Horizon:this is the surface layer of the soil profile.it is dark in colour due to loose leaves or organic debins.
It is a thin layer and is partly decomposid .
It contains humus for organic matter .it has maximum logical activities of plants and animals.it is a zone of ( elluviation) where mineral are atom to the profile.
(2) B-Horizon: this is a zone of illuviation where soil mineral accumulate,it is a sub-soil and it can farms a lot of minerals.
(3) C-Horizon :this is the zone of parent mocterials .it represent materials from which the sub-soil are formed .
It consists of weathered parent materials.
(4) D-Horizon : this is the zone of unweather rods from which the rock fragments later into soil particles are formed .it is know as the (bed rods)