The world population is growing rapidly, generating a high demand for food and other inputs, which is why researchers are searching for technological innovations that help produce the quantity and quality of food needed to feed the population, all without degrading soils and agro-ecosystems.
It has been estimated that world food production should increase from 70% to 100% by the year 2050, in order to meet the growing demand. One of the problems that has prevented food production from increasing is the constant attack that pests, diseases and weeds cause to crops, causing them to lower their productivity yields.
Producers in their eagerness to prevent their crops from being affected by pests, diseases and weeds have been forced to use an exaggerated and indiscriminate amount of synthetic agrochemicals, causing soils to lose their quality and generating a high degree of contamination, which is why the impetuous need arises to replace the use of these agrochemicals with others that generate less impact on soils.
It is in this context where Nanotechnology (NT) emerges as a technological-scientific tool that can transform the agricultural sector, being able to detect biotic and abiotic stress and also phytopathogenic diseases in plants or crops that producers have on their land. One of the advantages of nanotechnology is that it helps to understand biologically and in a better way the crops in order to obtain a better performance and productivity of them.
Nanotechnology is the study and development of systems in nano scale, this is represented in a prefix of the International System of Units which comes from the Greek vavoc which means dwarf, its scale of measurement goes from a factor of 10-9, this factor applied to the units of length represents one billionth of a meter, that is, one nanometer.
In conclusion, nanotechnology offers a better opportunity to the modern agri-food industry and agricultural producers, as it emerges as a means to help reduce the environmental impacts left by the use of synthetic biochemicals and to help improve food quality and yields.