Temtum - lightweight, peer-to-peer cryptocurrency where anyone can support the Temporal Blockchain network.

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This section provides an overview of the groundbreaking new technology behind temtum. Please refer to the glossary at the end of this white paper for a list of definitions. The temtum network achieves truly decentralised scalability, near instant transaction speeds and unprecedented transaction throughput, using low resources and future-proof cryptographic security.

With our improved network routing, the removal of the block size limit and a system architecture that ensures a single, randomly selected node confirms all transactions for 60 seconds, the only limitation to transaction throughput is the hardware and bandwidth of network participants. This is shown by the fact that we have demonstrated simulated transaction throughput speeds of 120,000 transactions per second in a laboratory environment. 

The critical elements of the temtum network architecture are the Temporal Blockchain, the Consensus and Routing Algorithms, and the use of proven truly random numbers based on quantum interference science.

  • Temporal technology provides the temtum network with an archivable blockchain, distributing blockchain data storage across a range of specialised nodes in order to allow low-powered devices to participate in the temtum network.
  • temtum’s Consensus Algorithm is a unique approach to blockchain consensus, which by definition allows one – and only one – leader to be selected at any given time.This eliminates any potential malicious fork. It also eliminates the energy cost associated with proof-of-work consensus model, improving the overall network efficiency.
  • The Routing Algorithm removes the need for the use of any type of gossip protocol because, by design, each node has an accurate and up-to-date global overview of the network and transactions are sent only to the leader node, rather than to all nodes.
  • The NIST Randomness Beacon uses quantum mechanical effects to generate proven truly random numbers that are used to secure the Temporal Blockchain network. Other equivalent sources of randomness have been identified and proven and are described in the rodmap section of this document as alternatives.

Our Vision

It provides amazing opportunities that have so far barely been touched on. For cryptocurrencies to thrive, blockchain now needs to take the next step in its evolution. And that’s where temtum comes in. temtum can help to secure a truly distributed, decentralised and democratic future for financial transactions. It is a future that does not destroy the environment. A future for everyone, wherever they live in the world, in which the benefits of cryptocurrencies are available and accessible for all. We have not only seen this positive future, we have designed the technology, built it, tested it and mapped out how it will be implemented as the most effective medium of exchange.

Temporal - A step change for blockchain

Temporal Blockchain technology transforms the way the blockchain works by reconstructing how peer-to-peer networks scale. It operates with less power, energy and storage, and processes transactions on very low-resourced devices at extremely high speeds, with an unparalleled degree of security. The temtum network can be scaled rapidly and at minimal cost. temtum eliminates the need for centralised pools of specialised hardware, delivering a blockchain network that’s environmentally conscious and can be run on any device connected to the web – even a smartphone.

This means that our vision of a truly decentralised, fully scalable network that can be placed in the hands of the many rather than the few is fully achievable. Yet with previous blockchain technology – which theoretically supported a similar vision – that simply wasn’t the case. Our technology innovations have supported the necessary evolution of blockchain, which in turn means that the temtum cryptocurrency represents a compelling mass-market proposition at a global level.

The problems with current blockchain technology

Blockchain is still an emerging technology. It has already started to transform a wide range of industries around the world by providing a digitized, immutable and secure network for transacting, sharing and distributing data without a central authority. This provides a number of significant theoretical benefits when compared with existing technologies and methods, such as improved transparency, traceability and security, as well as increased efficiency and speed of transactions. Most importantly, financial transactions are no longer reliant on trust – they are cryptographically proven. 

And yet blockchain networks that have already been deployed have suffered from a number of downsides and concerns that have meant that they have failed to deliver on their promise and are yet to see significant adoption. Chief among these downsides are:

  • Scalability: Current blockchain technologies are not truly scalable. They are not able to be fully decentralised and in many cases require high entry points to participate in them e.g. massive computational power.
  • Speed: Many blockchain technologies, including Bitcoin, are enormously slow. Bitcoin can take 10–15 minutes per transaction which makes it thoroughly unsuitable as a mainstream form of payment. The majority of alternative high transaction technologies are not blockchains.
  • Resource intensity: Many leading cryptocurrencies use highly wasteful and restrictive consensus mechanisms such as proof-ofwork, which require enormous energy use and have a significant environmental impact.
  • Security: Blockchain based cryptocurrencies’ pseudorandom generation of keys is open to exploitation by sophisticated hackers, with quantum computing increasing the likelihood of predicting softwaregenerated values.

Technology Roadmap

To demonstrate the technical capabilities of the temtum network – and how few resources a node is required to have in order to participate in the blockchain – we deployed custom code on the head unit (HU) of a BMW i8 as part of a mobility focused project. This allowed the car to function as a fully working node, capable of confirming transactions as the car was driven. The loading of the code into the car did not have any impact on its functionality and was able to run in the background.

Even though the computing power in the i8 is significantly less than traditional computers, it consistently demonstrated the ability to confirm 500 TPS. We believe this is a world-first where a car has been able to act as a full node without the requirement of additional hardware. 

Further developments of the mobility project have focused on two main areas:

  • The creation of a mesh network using cars as nodes, facilitating node-to-node communication; and
  • How this can be integrated into the wider temtum network.

Two test cars, a BMW 220i, and the showcase BMW i8 have been used during testing. As in the previous development cycle, we did not add any additional hardware and only the software on the iDrive systems were modified. We discovered that the BMW 220i, while a significantly less advanced in terms of digital systems than the i8, was still able to fully participate and achieve the same level of performance as a full node (able to store the Temporal Blockchain and confirm transactions when required) as the flagship i8. 

After demonstrating that an entry-level BMW is fully capable of participating in the temtum network as a node, we also achieved a mesh network between cars. This allowed the BMW 220i to have its own mobile network connection disabled, leaving it without internet access and instead receive data directly from the i8.

Receiving data from the i8 to the 220i directly, where Temporal and all transactions are also using cryptography, would not present an attack vector. The ability to communicate with vehicles that do not have an active internet connection increases the opportunity for older cars to participate in the network, while removing any mobile data charges and reducing costs for network participation.

Sideloading our application into the existing entertainment system of the older model BMW showed no performance degradation to the driver. Testing is under way to apply this theory to more car brands, including a 2018 Renault Megane, which will allow for direct cross-platform (i.e. from brand A to brand B) communication.

More than half-a-million BMW vehicles were registered in the UK from January 2014 to January 2017, with each vehicle more than capable of participating in and supporting the temtum network. With network scale increasing attack costs, participation via existing mobility infrastructure could ultimately secure temtum beyond levels seen with existing networks, without the need for expensive energy consumption.

Although the environmental impact of fuel-powered vehicles is of some concern, making use of technology that’s already in use and reducing the burden of such networks as Bitcoin on international energy resources is a positive move before more sustainable vehicles begin participating in the temtum network.

The Team

Dr Douglas Meakin - President
Douglas is an experienced technical executive with many years working within engineering, product development, quality systems and processes and operations in leading-edge technology industries. He is a proven business and operations leader and agent of change in a global context, having transitioned large organisations globally whilst managing huge increases in scope, complexity and business volumes. He is committed to effective and motivational leadership of teams and development of human potential. Most recently Douglas was the corporate vice president of global supplier management at Lam Research Corporation, a leading supplier of semiconductor processing equipment, based in Silicon Valley, California. Doug is CEO of temtum and sits on the board of directors.

Richard Dennis - Chief Development Officer
Richard is the founder of Dragon, and a globally acknowledged, prolific and prodigious cybersecurity and cryptography expert. He is also internationally recognised as one of the world’s leading cybersecurity lecturers with a specialism in secure networks, blockchain and encryption. He has a significant body of published research, cited 100’s of times within Blockchain, and presentations on next-generation solutions across a wide range of subjects, including Bitcoin wallet vulnerability, an analysis into the scalability of Bitcoin and Ethereum, and a formal analysis of the Temporal block.

Ginger Saltos - Chief Technology Officer
Ginger has an MSc in Security IT, MSc in Forensics IT and has worked extensively as a telematics engineer. She has five years of experience across public and private companies in security auditing in Ecuador and she has advised the Ecuadorian government about security on systems, policy and procedures. She is currently a professor at ESPOL, teaching programming, databases, security IT and Forensics IT. Open-Sec Ethical Hacker Certificate OP3N-53C 37H1C4L H4CK3R (OSEH). She is also a PhD candidate on the topic of ‘Analysing Malware using Phylogenetics.’ Her key specialisms are artificial intelligence and internet security.

Dr Gareth Owenson - Chief Information Security Officer
Gareth holds a PhD in Computer Science and a BSc in Internet Technology and is a specialist in internet security, cryptography and distributed systems. He has conducted research in large distributed systems with a particular interest in cryptographic applications such as darknets and digital forensics, including developing automated analysis techniques to rapidly reverse engineer advanced malware to determine its functionality and develop countermeasures. He has authored many publications in journals and conferences and regularly serves as a referee for Elsevier, IEEE and CHINACOM. He has conducted a large study into the use of darknets; he is widely recognised as an expert in this field and frequently speaks on this topic. He has also advised the UK and US governments on darknets and internet filtering policy.

David Hodkinson - Chief Financial Officer
David is the co-founder and CEO of Harvex, a specialist firm working with clients in the cryptocurrency, blockchain and online gaming sector. He has worked with multiple high-value ICO’s, advising on international structuring, banking and tax. As a qualified accountant, he has overseen the financial affairs of a wide range of cryptocurrency companies. Alongside this, he has been involved in the strategic launch of multiple online gaming companies and the integration of cryptocurrency with these platforms.

Cyntia Aguirre - Chief Software Architect
Cyntia is a Master of Science in Software Engineering with a strong background in software development and IT architecture. She has four years’ experience both developing as a full stack developer and designing and implementing software as an IT architect for the financial industry (Banco del Austro S.A.). She also holds a PMP accreditation (Project Manager Professional) certified by the Project Management Institute USA. 


We believe that temtum represents a remarkable new opportunity beyond even a step-change for blockchain and the first mass-adoption of a cryptocurrency. In fact, we believe that temtum can form the basis of an entirely new – and better – way of structuring financial relationships that is more environmentally friendly, transparent, traceable, secure and reliable than existing cryptocurrencies.

We have outlined in this paper how the fundamental values and principles of blockchain have been compromised in the cryptocurrency space due to inherent flaws in the existing technology. This has meant that blockchain cryptocurrencies have not delivered the user benefits they promised and, largely as a direct consequence of this, have failed to achieve widespread adoption.

Temtum’s technology builds on previous blockchain theory but represents a significant evolutionary leap from previous technology, which delivers an enhanced experience in terms of speed, resource-use, energy costs, environmental impact and true decentralisation. Our work in quantum randomness also ensures complete security.

Exploring opportunities within existing markets such as gaming and e-commerce, has opened new opportunities for temtum to provide payment solutions to high transaction platforms, who will directly benefit from the innovations that underpin its proprietary technology. As we have demonstrated above, this groundbreaking cryptocurrency has been fully developed, deployed and tested and is ready for full integration with existing payment systems to ensure the seamless adoption of temtum by regular consumers.

Our vision is a positive one. We believe that temtum will not only transform the blockchain and cryptocurrency markets; it will make the world a better place for more people. That is our purpose and we have a truly world-class and dedicated team that is fully committed to achieving it. We invite you to join us on our exciting journey to the future of finance. 


Author: Zee MinHo

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