We introduce HETA, an internal crypto-currency to use inside MainChain. HETA is used by Enterprise/user (who using Heta Blockchain service) to pay "usage fee”. We propose these ways of using HetaCoin.
• When a user creates a transaction to exchange their coins or token made by Heta, he must pay a pre-defined amount of HetaCoin. This is also called Transaction Fee. This mandatory fee is what makes HetaCoin has real value to the system. It also prevents merchants to flood the network with unlimited micro transactions.
• When a user participates in the consensus/ validation process of a PrivateChain or MainChain, he should be rewarded with a certain amount of HETA. This is also called Endorsing Reward. The rate of consensus reward should depend on how much effort the participant spends in the process.
Every account is defined by a pair of keys, a private key and public key. Accounts are indexed by their addresses which is derived from the public key by taking the last 20 bytes. Therefore, account addresses and digital signatures are derived directly from private keys, but the private keys are not used directly in the platform protocol in any way. Public key cryptography (aka "asymmetric cryptography") is a core part of modern day information security. It uses unique keys to secure information. These keys are based on mathematical functions that have a special property: it is easy to calculate them, but hard to calculate their inverse. Based on these functions, cryptography enables the creation of digital secrets and unforgeable digital signatures which are secured by the laws of mathematics. For example, multiplying two large prime numbers together is trivial. But given the product of two large primes, it is very difficult to find the prime factors (a problem called prime factorization). Let’s say I present the number 25009997 and tell you it is the product of two primes. Finding those two primes is much harder than it was for me to multiply them to produce X. Some of these mathematical functions can be inverted easily if you know some secret information. In our example above, if I tell you that one of the prime factors is 4999, you can trivially find the other one with a simple division: 25009997 ÷ 4999 = 5003 . Such functions are often called trapdoor functions because they are very difficult to invert unless you are given a piece of secret information that can be used as a shortcut to reverse the function. A more advanced category of mathematical functions that is useful in cryptography is based on arithmetic operations on an elliptic curve. In elliptic curve arithmetic, multiplication modulo a prime is simple but division (the inverse) is practically impossible. This is called the discrete logarithm problem and there are currently unknown trapdoors. Elliptic curve cryptography is used extensively in modern computer systems and is the basis of HETA's use of private keys and digital signatures. In HETA, we use public key cryptography to create the public–private key pair we have been talking about. They are considered a "pair" because the public key is derived from the private key. Together, they represent an HETA account by providing, respectively, a publicly accessible account handle (the address) and private control over access to any HetaCoin in the account and over any authentication the account needs when performing other actions. The private key controls access by being the unique piece of information needed to create digital signatures, which are required to sign transactions to spend any funds in the account or performing any action on its behalf. Creating an HETA private key is essentially the picking a number between 1 and 2^256. The process can be done offline, it does not require any communication with the HETA network, or with anyone at all. As such, in order to pick a number that no-one else will ever pick, it needs to be truly random.
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